Table of Contents

 

  1. Briefly about TATA Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS)…………………………….
    1. Introduction: TCS Ltd line of Business………………………………………...
    2. Mission and Vision of TCS Ltd…………………………………………………
  2. The Business Strategy………………………………………………………………
    1. The Strategic Diagnosis………………………………………………………..
    2. The Strategic Options…………………………………………………………..
    3. The TCS Business Strategy for 2011………………………………………….
    4. The Strategic Formulation………………………………………………………
  3. Formulation of the IT Strategy for TCS Ltd ………………………………………..
    1. The TCS IT Internal Environmental study…………………………………….
    2. The TCS External Environmental Study………………………………………
    3. Gap Analysis and Initiatives Portfolio…………………………………………
  4. Portfolio of the IT Projects recommended ……………………………………….
    1. The Support initiatives………………………………………………………….
    2. The Turnaround (high potential)………………………………………………..
    3. The Factory (key operational)…………………………………………………..
    4. The Strategic (support/transform strategy)……………………………………
  5. The IT organization ………………………………………………………………….
    1. Organizational Changes to be made in the TCS IT Division………………. 
  6. The cost and the benefit of TCS IT Strategy …………………………………….
    1. The Initiative Portfolio………………………………………………………….
    2. Recommendations………………………………………………………………
    3. The cost and benefits of the TCS IT strategy initiatives…………………….
  7. Financial Implications………………………………………………………………..
  8. The implementation planning ……………………………………………………….
    1. The Initiatives to be managed by the IT department………………………..
    2. TCS Macro-planning for the 2011 projects……………………………………

9.  References……………………………………………………………………………

Briefly about TATA Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS)

Introduction: TCS Ltd line of Business

TATA Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS) is an information technology (IT) company situated in India, with its headquarter at Mumbai. TCS Ltd deals with IT services, software and hardware engineering, alongside business outsourcing services (BOS) This IT Company is ranked among the best by the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE, 532540) of India, and in the National Stock Exchange (NSE).TCS Ltd is also one of the largest conglomerates in India, handling businesses in telecommunications, financial services, energy, government, healthcares, manufacturing of chemicals, software and hardware engineering, process engineering and research system (D`Costa, F, 1998, and David, R., 1997).

  1. Mission and Vision of TCS Ltd

The mission of TCS Company is to continuously provide quality and highly profiled products and services to our esteemed clients all over the world. With our dealings in IT products and services, our engagement in governmental economic activities, active participants in healthcare matters, and having established world class manufacturing industries across the Asian continent, TCS still remains a company of choice, providing quality services where they have never been delivered before.

As per the recent Market Stock Report, Tata Consultancy Services is one of the largest Asian BPO market with a growth rate of approximately 27.01 %, and revues of about 33.43 % (D`Costa, F, 1998). Current value of the reports indicated a share of 600 INR.This has, however, been one of the company’s future business strategies, to raise its growth rate and its market share indexes. 

The prime vision of TCS Company Ltd is to be in the top five IT Companies globally. Reaching out for our clients at an enormous and extensive global network interconnection is the one dream TCS is seeking to ascertain. Mutual understanding and benefit between the customers and the Industry are some of the key concern of TATA Company, to ensure that satisfaction and success is achieved through collaborative, productive and consultative relationships. This is a masterpiece reaction to the research findings which indicate that in spite of being a third world country, this Indian IT industry has shown much potential in the growth of its economy in the global market place, therefore attracting more competition, and more business opportunities in the market (Heeks, R., 1996).

  1. The Business Strategy
  1. The Strategic Diagnosis

Competition

Our company is aware of the intensive and ever increasing competition in the IT market. The Asian continent is such an industrious place with so many IT companies operating in the same line of business as TCS.There is thus a stiff competition our company is facing from the other rivaling IT industries like Shaw Wallace Ltd, Dell Computer Company, North American Computer hardware and Software Industries among others. 

Legalities

Since its commencement back in 1968, TATA Consultancy Services Company has had some serious wrangles with the Indian government, before it finally became a fully fledged IT Industry. Problems like delayed licensing, authorizations plus some other prolonged and scrupulous legal frameworks it has to undergo have been a set back to its rapid growth. 

Socio-political factors

Even though TCS Ltd has managed to come up as a strong IT Industry, that is, before venturing into the business outsourcing services (BOS), it still faces a few of the legal problems. The huge taxes demanded by the government and politics from the opposing government leaders who claim that TCS is not doing enough in providing employment opportunities to the Asian citizens are some serious challenges our company is facing lately. 

Technological Opportunities.

As stated by Dr, Hiroshi Tasaka, “It is a characteristic of the world we live that as something becomes more complex, it acquires more properties” (Hiroshi, 2010).It is from this basis that TCS found it necessary to advance on its intranet to get global, as this is becoming a dream of every company across the world, reaching out for the largest number of clients possible.  

Being an industry that is well positioned in terms of information and communication technology (ICT), providing IT services and doing research in the same line, TCS will easily be able to advance its global network connections by simply developing on its currently well established intranet. 

Developing a real time global interconnection is an exorbitant but an obvious investment for the modern companies. This TCS state of technology is a great advantage it has over the other companies that are seeking to establish their network connects from the scratch, thus requiring for more time to undertake the rather costly investment. It’s a good opportunity to beat the competitors severely in a flat race.

Threats.

Being a third world company operating in the midst of socio-political and economic turbulences, those IT companies operating from the developed states with minimal political interferences or economic instabilities, and which have dominated the top ranks in terms of productivity are the biggest threats to TCS company. As we are looking forward to going global in full force, they already jammed up the global networks, making it a bit difficult to topple the new competitive strategy that is being adopted by companies.

Resources

TCS Ltd is basically funded from the profits it gains by delivering myriads of IT services in the Middle East and to the American and African States. It also depends significantly on donors and well wishers that take to invest in the company and help develop its operations globally. When the economy gets tight, the company seeks the help of loans from the World Bank to enable it continue with its development oriented activities. Most of the raw materials utilized are constantly being imported from the American States and United Kingdoms in exchange for other products and services or money.

Strengths and Weaknesses of TCS Ltd

Our company is yet to come up with a world wide network interconnection that will enable it connect with its numerous clients and suppliers spread all over the world at an affordable cost .Its current intranet network is still underdeveloped and therefore not capable of standing the immense confrontations of the globally networked companies. But with its stable IT background, TCS has been able to stand the pressure of the rapidly evolving information and communication technology that has favored most of the companies in the developed States. 

The Strategic Options

The Value Proposition

By investing in the IT sector, TCS will be more exposed to innovations and the global market. For instance, if the company invests $ 800 million dollars in engineering the IT network projects, it would be expecting that by the year 2011, the money invested into this project would have been redeemed fully besides the advantage of having a world class IT infrastructure fully installed and operational.

The target Markets

TATA Consultancy Services Company is seeking to acquire a wider market by advancing its IT system to accommodate more clients from all over the world.TCS major targets are the upcoming communication industries, research and learning institutions, governmental organizations, and healthcare settings looking for quality services in Information technology. It’s also looking forward to narrow down the service to individual merchants dealing with the computer accessories.

The competitive advantage

As per the observations of Manuel Castells,”information technology is at the core of the new economy, and it present for the modern revolution what sources of energy were for the last time industrial revolution…what is fundamentally new in the current revolution we are experiencing is that information and knowledge are not only catalysts of the societal transformation, but they are the raw material the revolution acts on in an endless and cumulative feed-back loop” (Castells, 2000).

If the position of Manuel is something to go by, then TCS strategy of developing a global network will give it a competitive advantage in the technologically advancing global market. Through this IT system, TCS will be capable of attracting more clients and suppliers by giving them the necessary information that will act as a bonding strategy in this case.

The business Strategy stated

According to (Senge, P., 1994), a business strategy “is about recognizing, creating and using opportunity in a changing environment in order to survive in the market place and achieve corporate goals against competition from other business firms”. This source further highlights that one of the most commonly applied business strategies is the Michael Porter’s model of five forces i.e. existing competitors, suppliers, buyers and new entrance into the market (Senge, P., 1994, and Andrew, M. & Erick, B., 2008).

Therefore, with the help of the Michael Porter’s five competitive forces model, TCS Ltd intends to overcome the stiff competition in the IT world by first becoming part of the technological innovations that are transforming the world. The cost of engineering a global interconnection of networks is costly and time bound. If TCS will achieve this goal in time, it will block out all those companies that are yet to venture into the same line of business. It will also have a competitive advantage over the existing competitors that have not yet gone the global IT way in devolving the products and services. And by introducing new system of reaching out for more clients and customers, TCS will be flexible in toppling the bargaining powers of the supplies and consequently the customers. Porter’s model accomplished as shown in the diagram sketched below.

Introduction of new products and services will add to its competitive advantage by attracting new clients, and maintaining the current ones that may get interested in the new products and services. This strategic business plan is also likely to attract an exorbitant expenditure before its implementation, after which it may make it difficult for new companies to venture into the same. New entrance into the market is thus barricaded. Launching of new products and services will also redefine and reduce significantly the bargaining powers of both the suppliers and the customers. This will drastically pose a competitive challenge to the other companies in the market.

Borrowing from Michael Porter, the presence of products far from the sphere of the common commodities in the market would tend to increase the tendency of customers switching to alternative products in the market (Heeks, R., 1996). Having been a profitable market, as confirmed by a number of surveys and market reports, there is a probability that the IT market would draw many companies to venture into the business. Such a phenomenon pointed out by Porter, is likely to trigger new entrances into the market. This would imply that the market competition would be more intensified, due to many new entrants, which will eventually stifle the profitability scale of the TCS Company. It’s only through blocking or barring of new entrances into the market that the TATA Company will survive the challenge of competition and any go-down of the industry’s incomes. Porter noted that profit rates would tend to drift to the side of a competitive level in the market (Porter, 1979, p.188).

In its future organizational strategies, basically aimed at standing the constant changes in the market, TCS Ltd has put in place a long strategic plan for introducing more employment opportunities among its IT departments i.e. the Co-Network Research Lab, and software engineering department. This is perceived significance as it will boots on the number of TCS IT research and engineering personnel, thereby enabling it to be well versed with innovative ideas and technical “know-hows” in the IT world.


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The IT Strategic planning and Implementation

In order to achieve its 2011 goals, TATA Consultancy Services embarked on the implementation exercise by first familiarizing its stakeholders on the visions and objectives to be achieved by the company come 2011.Contributions of the employees into the business strategic plans was put into much concern, knowing that without engaging its employees and other stakeholders in the company, the IT business strategy to be accomplished by 2011 could be prone to jeopardy, hence failure. It’s apparent that when others are ignored when formulating the business strategy, or otherwise not informed on the pending future plans, they will feel uncomfortable and perceive the move as deceitful and not in any way to the best of their interest (Apte et al, 1995). TATA Consultancy Services Company noted this aspect of management clearly in planning to implement its strategy. And through an effective communication processes, all the stakeholders have been kept up to date and well informed on the new changes and upcoming plans of the industry, so that none is caught unaware or in the midst of confusion on what is taking place within the industry.

Purcell, Kinnie and Hatchison, business and economic researchers, emphasize that successful strategic planning also requires an active involvement of the stakeholders, the employers, employees, managers, and the executives (Apte et al, 1995). It does not matter “whether the strategic planning is only taking place at departmental level, or even affecting the entire firm”. It is the responsibility of the managers and or the executives to guide, support and assess the outcomes of the business strategies and its implementation processes (Purcell, JP Kinnie, NL and Hatchison, SK, 2003).One of such methodologies that were employed by the TCS Ltd in assessing and evaluating its future achievements was the Business Score cards .

Business score cards are communication equipment “used to tell a story of how value is created for an organization or a company”. This communication tool is attributed to “Drs Robert Kaplan and David Morton of Harvard business School”. The strategy has widely been used in aligning business activities concomitant to the visions and goals to be ascertained by the business firm (Andrew, M., and Erick B, 2008).TCS Ltd was not exceptional in applying the same strategy.

Under the porters and SWOT analyses, the degree of rivalry in the market would help the Industry, in this case TATA Consultancy Company, to comprehend the magnitude to which the Industries efforts towards better performance can easily be thwarted by the rivals, that is, if it fails to monitor its strengths in relation to the other competitive IT companies in the global market already. Understanding the nature of the five forcers is thus indispensable so to speak.

Porter, SWOT and other competitive business models further elaborate that rivalry is not the only competition quagmire in the market, there are also the issues of new entrance into the market, buyers and suppliers bargaining powers and the threat of substitutes of products in the market which they emphasized was responsible for determining the market profitability scale (Lawrence, P, and Lorsch, J,1967).TATA Company is hence faced with all these forces and it has to be well versed and prepared enough in coping up with the rapid technological development of the other industries.

 The IT industry, TCS Ltd, is obliged to seek for understanding of the nature of the markets, the competition environments and how the global market is affected relatively by the five forces as proposed by Michael Porters and others. This move would help the industry in achieving the future business strategies and objectives. The Industry has also devised ways of making it very difficult for newly emerging IT companies to enter into the market. It has formulated strategies so to cub competitions from rivalries, threats of substitute products in the market and the bargaining powers of suppliers and customers on a long-term basis (Arora et al, 1999).

Strategic Management System and Performance Evaluation

We are living in a dynamic world, a world where everything seems to be taking a new course of change. It’s difficult imagining a static business world, in an environment of technological innovations and dynamic economic ideologies. Nation-states, societies, organizations, individuals and notably, business industries have to constantly evolve to cope up with the dynamic world; otherwise you will be left lagging behind time. In a nut shell, change is a must, and managing change is even mandatory (Armstrong, M and Baron, A, 2002).

Technological innovations have significantly been the major factors in bringing global changes. How the changes are implemented is hence a vital aspect of development, particularly in the business world today. It should strategically be planned. And taking note from (Armstrong, M and Baron, A, 2002), the methodologies employed in bringing about change are as important as the success of the business strategy. 

Conclusion

Change can be positive or negative. Positively, a change would comprise of the establishment of enhanced conditions, and forthcomings opportunities availed by new technological innovations. On the other hand, negative elements of change would encompass destruction of the familiar trends of operations, the repercussions brought about by change due to lack of understanding of the strategic system , rejection by the majority and isolation of the minority because of distrust and fear of the uncertainties that the change may bring (Bannerjoe, A., and Duflo, E., 1998).

Management strategies are concerned with the implementation of the business strategies which will affect either positively or negatively, the overall performance of the company. Implementation of the new innovations should therefore be aligned or linked with the overall business strategy (Armstrong, M. and Baron, A., 2002).

Bibliography

Andrew, M., and Erik B. (2008) .Investing in the IT That Make a Copetetitive Difference 

.Harvard Business  Review, July-August. 

Arora, et al. (1999). Quality Certification and the Economics of Contract Software Development: A Study of the Indian Software Service Companies. 

Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

Apte el al (1995). Global Disaggregation of Information-intensive Services: Management  Science. Vol. 41, No. 1250-1263

Armstrong, M and Baron, A. (2002). Strategic HRM: the key to improved business  performance: Developing practice. London Chartered Institute of Personnel and 

Development. 

Bannerjee, A., and Duflo, E., 1998, Reputation effects and the limits of contracting: A  study of the Indian software industry”, unpublished paper, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Dave, R (1997). Patterns of Success in the Indian Software Industry.Senior Honors  Thesis. Stanford University. 

D'Costa, F., (1998). Technology Leapfrogging: Software Industry in India: Presented at  the 2nd. International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation. Calouste 

Gulbenkian

Dyer, L. and Holder, G. (1998). Strategic human resource management and planning: Human resource management, evolving roles and responsibilities 

4Ed.Washington DC: Bureau of National Affairs.   

Gopal, A. (1996). An Empirical Analysis of Offshore Software Development: A First Look At Some Explanatory Factors, forthcoming in Communications of the 

ACM.London. Oxford University Press 

Heeks, R. (1996). India’s Software Industry: State policy, liberalization and Industrial  Development. Sage Publications.

Lawrence, P., and Lorsch, J., (1967). Differentiation and Integration in Complex  Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 12 

Porter, M.E. (1979) How competitive forces shape strategy, Harvard business Review,  March/April 1979. 

Purcell, JP. Kinnie, NL.and Hutchinson, SK. (2003) .Understanding the people and  performance link: unlocking the black box. London: Chartered Institute of 

Personnel and Development

Senge, P., (1994). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning 

Organization. 1st edition. Paperback edition Book review.




Abstract

There have been extensive researches and studies on problem solving methods, techniques, assumptions and philosophies, involving both the laboratory experiments and field work analysis. In this essay, however, not everything to do with problem solving is discussed. A few of the written literatures and research findings have been critically considered to help explain a technical theme in this piece of work.Yes, we have heard from writers like Stuart Sorensen (Staurt, 2007), psychologists, the caliber of D’Zurilla and  Goldfried (D’Zurilla , T. & Goldfried, M, 1971), not to forget the works of Carter McNamara, a lawyer and business consultant in problem solving (Carter, 2008).Also given much attention while writing this essay are the ideas and opinions from individuals and group discussions that were geared towards reaching an amicable agreement on whether an understanding of the past is necessary in solving present problems, or otherwise, as some may opt to criticize. 

Introduction

“An understanding of the past problem is necessary in solving the present”. This statement implies that knowledge that was used to solve a similar problem in the past may be applied to resolve the same in future. There is no problem that has no solution; or else it is not a problem anymore, but rather a fact. Stuart Sorensen states; problems are those things that can be changed or altered in a way, obstacles and challenges to be overcome in life (Stuart, 2007).

Sorensen further posits that there is, however, no point in trying to change the unchangeable, and that this may simply lead an individual to more frustrations in life. Regarding facts as problems, as he emphasizes, is like asking a poor man how to become a millionaire (Stuart, 2007). It’s true that a poor man wouldn’t be poor anymore if he can find ways of getting richer. But because he doesn’t know how to get rich, why ask him the way to richness? 

The idea is, in trying to find a coherent solution; we need to consider the background information about a problem. Facts should not be mistaken for problems; neither should problems be treated as facts. Suppose you do not like your body height at your grown up age, there is no need stressing up yourself on how to change it, because the solution to your kind of problem is somehow not there. Accepting your height is therefore a bitter hub you must learn how to swallow. Simply put, understanding a problems is as important as solving it. 


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The Need for Understanding a Problem

In our day to day livelihoods, we encounter problems, at home, in schools and/or at our work places. From the findings of Carter McNamara, supervisors and managers are most often engaged in solving problems and making decisions. The new supervisors and managers that take over the responsibilities in future normally borrow their problem solving techniques from the past ideas that were used to solve particular problems in their organization(s) (Carter, 2008). This is to reduce on things like workload, stress and fatigue. Having to come up with the same solution to the same problem every other day doesn’t only sound exasperating, but is indeed very intimidating. We may thus require the past to help in solving the present, faster and more pertinently, given the background information on a problem.

McNamara, however, puts it clear that not all problems that emerge within an organization can be solved using the ideas that worked before. According to McNamara, problems can as well be perceived as opportunities to better the future by redefining and understanding the problem progressively (Carter, 2008).One problem could be having more than one suitable solution. In such a case, it is likely that the latest solution is the best, and so, the past may not count much.

Take the case of HIV/AIDS, still no ultimate cure, but ever since its origin, there have been a series of advancement in the modes of managing the deadly disease. In the preliminary trials to get the cure, the use of condoms was introduced to help reduce the spread, as the search for the cure continues. Then the use of ARVs for those already infected. Suppose the cure could finally be announced today, then the previous temporary solution for those infected, which is the use of ARVs, is likely to be overtaken by the new innovation, the new solution. And so the past solution ceases to count in the new management of the disease. Why should you go for the ARVs when you can simply get a cure!

Some problems may not require knowledge of the past

Problems that seem to pose many solutions may not necessarily need to be solved based on the knowledge of the past. What really matters here is getting the most suitable solution to the problem. Current problems may also come with current solutions. For example, when using the Microsoft office word 2003 application, you will not be able to read a file saved in Microsoft office word 2007, not unless converted. On the other hand, office word 2007 will easily read the files saved in Microsoft office word 2003, conversion not needed. In this case, the present comes with a solution to a problem that can not be solved by the past. All these are as a result of individuals` ideas, logically and systematically executed to change the changeable for the better. 

Conclusion

We can conclude that if a suitable solution has to be found, then understanding of a problem is indispensable. As much as the ideas of the past should critically be considered when trying to find a better solution to a present problem, this may not apply to all problems. Some problems have little to do with the past. Whichever of these situations prevails first, understanding a problem is the most critical, so that we do not perceive facts as problems.

References

Carter, M.Business Guideline to Problem Solving and Decision Making. Authenticity 

Consulting.LLC. NilesRiver.com.2008.

D’Zurilla, J, & Goldfried, M. Problem solving and behavior modification. Journal of  Abnormal Psychology, 78, 107-126. 1971.

Stuart, S. Understanding and Solving Problems. RMN. Mental Health Sanctuary. 2007

Abstract

Having dug deep into the ancient history of Cambodian, exploring several literatures, information sources and research papers, it is apparent that much has been written on the reign of King Jayavarman VII and his predecessors. Unfortunately, his socio-cultural life and political contributions have not been forthcoming, in spite of his grate-ness as a King and a societal leader. To help re-address this case more vividly, a number of literary works and studies on the regime of King Jayavarman the VII have been re-considered. We see authors like Paul Mus, Claude Jacques and Philip Stern writing about the leadership of kings in the great Khmer Empire in a rather general way (Paul, M, 1952, & Phillip, S, 1965). David Candler gives us an amalgamation of so much information on the history of Cambodia, but he doesn’t really write comprehensively on socio-cultural and political life of King Jayavarman VII.He is instead so concerned about the history of Cambodia Empire that was in fact headed by many Kings, Jayavarman VII just one of them (David, 2008). This paper attempts to synopsize many of these literature works into one document, for easy synthesizing, discussions, and future analysis.

Background Information

Jayavarman VII was born between 1120 and 1125, in the royal family of Angkor. He grew up and later got married to a very wise princess named Javarajadevi.The princess is said to have had an immense influence on Jayavarman VII, prior to his Kingship. Unfortunately the influential princess died and Prince Jayavarman VII was remarried to her sister (Phillip, 1965). 


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The Prince is said to have spent his early life away from Cambodia capital, also referred to as Khmer City. Precisely, he lived more with the Cham of present day Vietnam (Freeman et al, 1999). He was thus well versed with the socio-cultural practices of the Cham, such as their Buddhist religious practices, and use of Sanskrit as a formal language.

The Rise of King Jayavarman VII

Joyavarman VII was the last great King of Angkor (City), founded by his predecessor, Joyavarman II in 1053 AD (Paul, 1952). History informs us that there were a series of Kings before Joyavarman VII finally took over the throne. Succeeding Yosovarman I was Joyavarman II, who handed over to Suryavarman II, grandfather to the prince. Dharanindravarman II was the next king and father to Joyavarman VII. King Joyavarman VII succeeded his father Dharanindravarman II after he passed away in 1150 A.D (Freeman, M, & Claude, J, 1999).

As a result of his father’s demise, there emerged an internal strife, with the Cham, now referred to as Southern Vietnam, taking advantage of  the King’s death to invade his territory. Following these political strife and invasions, Prince Joyavarman VII, who was to become the next King, succeeding Dharanindravarman II, his father, rallied his people to defend their lands and lakes from invasions of the Cham Kingdom (Phillipp, 1965).

Jayavarman VII took his kingship throne in 1181 after he won the battle against Chams.As a new king, Jayavarman VII then constructed the wall of Angkor Thom (City).He also built up a spiritual center called Bayon and a geographic site. Bayon depicted King’s battle with the Cham, life of Khmer (Cambodia) villagers, and courtiers (David, 2008).

Characteristics of Jayavarman VII the King

He was a great King, one of the most forceful and productive kings of the Khmer Empire of Angkor. King Jayavarman VII was praised for his developmental ambitions. In his reign of 30 years, he programmed a sequence of development activities, featuring the construction of monuments and public works. One of his key goals was to alleviate his people from sufferings(Audric, 1972).

In attempt to improve on his subject, king Jayavarman VI built 102 hospitals that were evenly spread through out his Kingdom. Literature tells as that, Jayavarman VII the King suffered illnesses of his subjects more than from his own people (Audric, 1972). With his believes in Mahayana Buddhist, pains that affected men`s bodies, to him, were spiritual pains which he considered more intense (Freeman, M & Claude, J, 1999).The reign of King Jayavarman VII was actually marked by centralization of Cambodia kingdom and grouping of the people of Khmer into greater population centers.

He was a strong socio-cultural believer, following the practices of Buddhist religion and the prevailing ancestral norms of the society from which he was born to become a king. He built a pair of temples in honor of his late parents, that is, Ta Prohm and Preah Khan. The former was for his father, King Dharanindravarman II, and the later was to stand in for his beloved mother, Queen Sri Jayarajacudaman (David, 2008).

King Jayavarman VII was a warrior; perhaps the greatest warrior in the entire history of Cambodia. His powerful military achievements left a legacy in the Cambodia Kingdom, having brought under control even those that were known to be powerful kingdoms like Chama and Southern Laos.

Jayavarman VII was also a key figure in the Cultural evolution of Cambodia kingdom. He ensured that all the ancient traditions and cultural practices that had been preserved by his predecessors remained in their honor and recognition. These included the statues and images which were regarded as sacred and some for spiritual use or purpose. The cultural activities like dances, art and design, and farming constituted part of his daily livelihood (Freeman, M, & Claude, J, 1999).

History could not have judged him otherwise, other than being such an emblematic figure in the Khmer Nation. Many of the authors and historians begged to differ from the rather controversial accounts of George Coede’s. Coede’s posited that it was through forced labor that King Jayavarman VII achieved his architectural and engineering vision. (George, 1967).His claims were, however, met by an overwhelming resistance from other historical and philosophical writers.

Discussion and Conclusion

The socio-cultural history and life of Jayavarman VII the King has been told by quite a number of literatures. It’s fascinating that nearly all of them portrayed him as the most prosperous King that ever lived in the City of Cambodia. Many Kings came and went, talk of Joyavarman II, Yosovarman I, Suryavarman II or even his father Dharanindravarman II. None of them is compared to Jayavarman VII, because unlike him,  his predecessors did not leave any remarkable legacy. In spite of the stiff challenges he faced from rivals and critiques, he stood firm to defend his Kingdom. 

References

Audric, J . Angkor and the Khmer Empire. London: R. Hale. 1972.  

David, C. A History of Cambodia .Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado, 2008 p. 39.

George. C. Les Etats hindouisés d’Indochine et d’Indonésie, 1967. p.315

Freeman, M; & Claude, J. Ancient Angkor. Trumbull, Conn. Weatherhill. 1999

Paul, M. Angkor at the Time of Jayavarman VII. Bulletin de Société des Études  Indochinoises (Paris), 1952. 261-273.

Philipp S.Les monuments du style de Bayon et Jayavarman VII.Paris 1965.

Abstract

With the help of adequate literatures, and a plethora of information sources, this essay has attempted to re-examine the basis, significance, and implications of the widely discussed Chicago Movement, which according to some of the literary works, was the framework for the social change and democracy in America.  From the works of authors and researchers like Christopher Robert (Christopher, 1997), Hornsby (Hornsby & Straub, 1997) and Johnson (Johnson et al, 1990), it’s apparent that prior to the impacts of the civil movement, not all the American people were being treated fairly and equally. Some were treated special unlike others. Such observations were termed as racial segregations and discriminations. These two concepts, that is, segregation and discrimination, have thus been repeatedly used in nearly all the literatures that discuss the cases of civil rights and movements. This essay has no intention of deviating from restating the facts as they have been written down. Also featuring in the essay is the renowned black movement activist, Dr.King, popularly known as Dr.Martin Luther King Jr. King Jr. played an indispensable role in the Chicago Movement, enforcing for the immigrants rights and freedoms, in Chicago (Ralph J & James R. Jr., 1993)

The Thesis Statement

As it has been pointed out by Anderson (Anderson et al, 1986), agitation for immigrants’ rights was a common factor in Chicago, with the African Americans taking the lead in the war against segregation and massive injustices. Unlike the white immigrants, it was unfortunate that the blacks had to battle it out for social recognition and citizenship rights (Ralph &, 1993).Enough of discriminations in education institutions, public lands and social places, and disfranchisements i.e. denial of voting rights . Something had to be done to change the evil trends. But who was to stand in for revolution in the socio-cultural doctrines of the white dominancy? How was this achieved and what were the strategies that the Black Americans used to fight for their civil rights? What lesions can we draw from the Chicago Movement, concomitant to the Civil Rights and Immigrant privileges? These are some of the issues that this essay attempts to probe, re-address, and discuss.

The Chicago Movement

Chicago Movement was the struggle for socio-political and economic change in the Southern part of America (Reed et al, 1997). The movement was basically aggravated by what had commonly been known as racial segregation and rampant discrimination of the blacks by the whites. Leading the black movement from the front was Dr.Martin Luther King Jr, also referred to as Dr.King.The movement was composed of two major alliances, that is, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the Coordinating Council of Community Organization (CCCO), founded by the Chicago Urban League (The Editors of Ebony, 1974) .The SCLC was led by Martin Luther King Jr. since 1965 and its top agenda was to struggle for a social change. Both the SCLC and the activists of the CCCO as highlighted by the works of Bernard LaFayette and James Bevel, veterants of the Southern Civil Rights Movements, harnessed the black revolution (Ralph, 1993).It was just the beginning of the Immigrant Rights Movement in the Southern America.


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Ideological Framework of the Black Movement

The ideas and objectives that toped the agendas of the Black Movements were to eradicated slums in the city; enforce for equal opportunities in education; fight for fair treatment in social places i.e. hospitals, theatres, and social halls; demand for political rights, emenating from the fact that the African Americans were not accorded the right to vote; and to struggle for equal economical gains (Ralph, et al, 1993). All these were the building components of the ruthless racial segregations and widespread discriminations across the Southern frontiers of America. They i.e. the building facets, acted as the motivating factors that led to the Chicago Movement which was to bring about socio-economic and political changes.

The Movement ambassordors, led by Dr. King called for the support of the blacks and whites of Chicago to help impose and implement their goals. Came the early summer of 1966, attention was given first to the housing discrimination. It all began with the formation and grouping of unions e.g. the tenants Unions, rallies e.g. the 1966 Soldiers Field rally, and organizations e.g. CCCO and SCLC. According to the Editors of Ebony, titled “Civil Rights Movement to Black Revolution”, well above 60, 000 people gathered for the first time to listen to the speeches of Martin Luther King and his activist colleagues, the likes of Mahalia Jackson, Peter Paul, and Stevie Wonder (The Editor of Ebony, 1974).By late 1966, the Chicago Freedom Movement kicked off, with several marches and staging all around the white neighborhoods of the Chicago City

Methodologies used in the Movement

Formation of unions, social groupings, parties, creation of organizations, associations, public education and legislative lobbying were among the major strategies that the Black Movement utilized to struggle for civil rights, freedoms and democracy (Ralph, et al, 1993).

By 19th Century, the race relations had highly intensified, leading to the emergence of the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).The one goal of the association, NAACP, was to champion for justice in the Society. Then followed the Great Depression and consequently the creation of the Communist Party. The main agenda of the Communist party was to agitate for employment rights and access to public accommodations. The local residents were never left behind either; they detested the act of segregation in schools. Backing them up was the Congress of Racial Equality which was the masterpiece of James Farmer of Chicago and other followers of the Gandian tactics (James R., Jr,1993).

Groupings, organizations, parties, alliances and associations continued to be formed, as the pressure to fight for justice pilled up. The 1960s actually saw the opening of public accommodations in Chicago to the African Americans, courtesy of the civil movements (Reed et al, 1997).

The Chicago Freedom Movement winded up in the mid of 1967, with the disintegrations of the alliances like CCCO and SCLC.The works of Dr. King and his psycho-fans had at least beard fruits, the fruits of unity, cooperation and  hard labor. It should however be understood that the battle for democracy in America did not end there. It was a long tedious journey, a journey whose description is out of the scope of this essay.

Resultant effects of the Chicago Movement

The resultant effects of the Black Movement may critically be perceived both negatively and positively. Negatively, the success of the back revolution was never achieved on a silver platter. It was as a result of wars, battles, fights, protests, boycotts and bloodsheds. Many people loosed their loved ones, and great world leaders got assassinated for trying to stifle the rather unjustified social dominance. We can talk of the 1964 assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Dr.King, renowned for his famous quot, “I have a Dream” (Kirk, 2005). Also assassinated along with Dr.King were the brothers of the then President, Robert Kennedy, bringing their ambitions and careers to an end (Arsenault, 2006).

There were, however, numerous positive outcomes of the Chicago Movement that remained to live in the memories of the subsequent American generations. In the initial stages of the final analysis, we see the African Americans being allowed to enter the previously out of bound public accommodations, and social halls. Education become a right to all, irrespective of gender or race, and with the blacks now allowed to vote, there was a sense of democracy coming to the historically undemocratic land.Enonomy was picking up, riots, boycotts, and wars were ceasing to recur unlike before. Christopher Roberts together with his research counterparts put it pretty clear that, because of the Chicago Movement, there was a rise in the black leadership, and social recognition of the African Americans (Reed, D & Christopher, R, 1997). Many other socio-political positive impacts were also observed as a result of the Immigrant Rights Movements. The re-organization of the voting system in favor of the blacks, renovation of the City of Chicago through eradication of slums, just to mention a few (Johnson et al, 1990). 

Lesions drawn from the Chicago Movement

Some of the lesions that can be drawn from the Movement in Chicago would include the sense of democracy in Unity and Corperation.We may also learn that people have to take the responsibility of fighting for their rights and privileges. The leadership of Dr.King left a legacy and a point of reference to the rest of the leadership fraternity across the globe. We see the current American President, Barrack Obama assimilating some of the leadership qualities shown by Martin Luther the King, standing in to fight for the rights of all people, and not for his own rights. Let other leaders also borrow from some of these critical lesions.

Conclusion

As a result of the racial segregations and discriminations, the African Americans realized the need to come together and say no to the massive injustices. The need and desire for equal rights led them to the formation of alliances of all sorts, all geared towards the struggle for equality. With the help of good leaders like Dr. King, they managed  to achieve their goals. Justice was finally here to stay, because the Chicagoans were not leaving any stone unturned in their battle for justice. Justice in this case implied equal treatments in all the socio-political and economic spheres of life. A fight well won Chicago!

Reference

Arsenault, R. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New  York: Oxford, 2006.

Anderson, B, & George W. Confronting the Color Line: The Broken 

Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago. 1986.

Hornsby, P, & Straub D. African American Chronology. Volume I. Gale 

Research International Limited. Detroit, Michigan, 1994.

Johnson, J, & Stokely, C: The Story of Black Power. Silver Burdett  Press, Inc.1990.

Kirk, A. Martin Luther King, Jr. London: Longman, 2005. 

Ralph, Jr. Northern Protest: Martin Luther King, Jr.Chicago, and the Civil  Rights Movement. 1993. 

Reed, J, & Christopher R. The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional  Leadership, 1910–1966. 1997. 

The Editors of Ebony. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. Volume III: Civil 

Rights Movement to Black Revolution. Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.,  Chicago, Illinois, 1974

Introduction

A project refers to a set of activities, which are limited in scope, space and time to achieve specific objectives.  Since these resources are always limited, a detailed evaluation should be carried out before settling on one project as the most optimal options. It is important to carryout evaluation before actual execution of the project to avoid foreseeable mistakes as well as allow maximization of resources. Project evaluation and selection is an important phase of project cycle, which is motivated by the desire to establish chances of success for a proposed project. It is also important to evaluate projects to enable informed decision making when choosing from various alternative options (Bruce, 2003). 

In general, Project Evaluation involves the control of planning and implementation of activities of a project in relation to the desired objectives. It assesses major consequences of a proposed project and gives quantitative information to guide policy decision makers. Thus, project evaluation is generally the basis of large decision-making processes. The project parties often make decisions to conduct project evaluations by signing the project document. In most cases, the desirable goals of an organization may be achieved through various projects. Once the objective or an organization has been established, the executives invite various options either from in-house engineers or outside contractors. The received alternatives of achieving organizational goals carry varying constraints and resource requirements. This situation makes it necessary to carry out an evaluation on the projects to establish the option, which will ensure realization of organizational goals in the cheapest means possible (Rogers, 2001). This paper explains what it entails to carry out a project evaluation before settling on the most appropriate option. 

Types of Project Evaluation

The process of project evaluation is considerably tedious because it involves a myriad of constraints. Project constraints, which are useful in the evaluation process, may be measurable or not. As a result, the process entails a threefold analysis encompassing quantitative, qualitative as well as integrated techniques. The following sections examine these three approaches applied in evaluating a project. The uniqueness of organizational project evaluation techniques does not make these methods meaningless. Instead, all the procedures employed by organization in project evaluation process fall in any of the three categories. 


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Quantitative Approaches

Quantitative approach is commonly used in most organizations because of its ease in comparison. The approach applies quantifiable decision-making parameters like cash flows, rate of employment, profit margins and sales revenues among others. This approach is usually the most reliable since if the anticipated expenditure and revenue are correct. The estimates are converted in to net present values, which make it easy to do comparison between various project alternatives (Hans, 2005). 

NPV Comparison

The Net Present Value evaluates the present value of a business if it is execute to the end. It establishes the foreseeable cash flows both outwards and inwards prior to the execution. The assumption of this method is that all the cash outflows and inflows are known with certainty.  It also incorporate aspect of time value of money, which postulates that money, is of a higher value if held currently than in a future (Babcock & Morse, 2001).  Therefore, this method uses discounted values of projected revenue and investments costs in calculation of the present worth of a business. The discounting factor is the obtained from the effective interest rate. The equation below shows how net future cash flows are discounted to show their present values (Hans, 2005). 

An is the net cash flow of an nth period and i is the interest rate. The selection criterion of an acceptable project depends on the value of NPV obtained from the computation. The project alternative with the highest value of NPV is desirable. Using this method implies that non-measurable decision parameters are not important or impossible to incorporate in the decision process. An outstanding weakness of this evaluation technique is its inability to measure projects with various scopes. Taking the overall net present value alone as a measure of performance is not sufficient to show efficiency. 

Return on Investment

Every business venture is aimed at making profits. For every investment commitment, investors are motivated by the possible returns from their projects. During the evaluation process, it is important to incorporate this measure of performance by establishing the potential return on investment. It is the ratio of net cash inflows to the outlaid amount. The net cash inflow is the annual revenue less associated operational cost. 

The project with the highest value of ROI is desirable because it shows the potential of maximizing investors’ resources (DeFusco, McLeavey, Pinto, & Runkle, 2011). 

Payback Period Comparison

Payback period is another method of comparing project options. The method measures the length of time required to realize invested capital from net revenues. It is a simple and quick measure of project’s viability. Among the many project accepted as options, the one with the shortest payback period is desirable. This is in line with most investor’s psychology of anticipating returns in the shortest time possible.  In other words, it is the breakeven point where cumulative net present values of sequential years just meet the initial outlay (Hans, 2005). It is given by:

The conspicuous limitation of this method is in its failure to consider time value of money and projects performance after breakeven point. Paying attention to payback period exclusively may not be the best method because there are other aspects of project measured up on completion only.  

Pacifico and Sobelman Project ratings

This method seeks to establish the most reliable quantitative method of project evaluation by sealing the gaps left by the aforementioned methods. It seeks to solve the assumption that the values of decision-making parameters are known with certainty. Carl Pacifico developed a project-rating factor to assist in evaluating project performance by incorporating the probabilities of both technical and commercial successes. 

Project rating factor is given by:

Where pT and pC are the probabilities of technical and commercial successes respectively.  R is the total revenue possible throughout project life cycle while TC is the total investment. 

Conversely, project value factor is computed as:

Where P is the profit per year, TLC is the estimated product life cycle, C is the mean annual development cost and TD is years of development. 

Using these factors, organizations evaluate the possible alternatives with a bid of selecting an option with the highest factor. 

Qualitative Approaches

Despite being famous among project managers, qualitative approaches of project evaluation are not always the ideal means of making the most optimal decision. This is occasioned by the fact that some decision-making parameters are not sufficiently quantifiable. In such cases, it becomes prudent to do a qualitative analysis. Qualitative techniques like decision trees, focus groups, benchmarking, and nominal group technology. These techniques are collectively used through collective multifunctional evaluations. 

Collective Multifunctional Evaluation

In collective multifunctional evaluation experts seek establish acceptance criteria by merging both quantitative and qualitative methods. Once all the factors considered as important in determining projects’ successes, these experts weigh them in order of importance or range of impact. Out of these results, a project with the highest score of acceptability is selected. 

Conclusion

The objective of evaluation is to establish the merit or worth of products, projects, procedures and processes. Well-planned evaluations provide information that aid in explanation of outcomes. Project managers frequently face the challenges of evaluating innovations and finding out progresses or goals achievements. While carrying out a project evaluation, it is important to underscore that fact that business environment is highly dynamic. The use of traditional quantitative methods is not enough to inform a decision of selection a project. Conversely, the use of quantitative methods alone is not sufficient too in the decision making process. Consequently, seeking a means that incorporates the two frontiers will ensure that a suitably informed selection is done by decision-making organ in an organization. It is also important for evaluators to ensure that they capture all the information that matter prior to making conclusions.   

References

Babcock, D. L. & Morse, L. C. (2001). Managing Engineering and Technology. Sydney: 

Prentice-Hall, Sydney. 

Bruce, J. F. (2003). Investment Performance Measurement. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

DeFusco, R. A., McLeavey, D. W., Pinto, J. E., & Runkle, D. E. (2011). Quantitative Investment 

Analysis. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. 

Hans J. T. (2005). Management of Technology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

Rogers, M. G. (2001). Engineering Project Appraisal: The Evaluation of Alternative 

Development Schemes. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.  

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